grammaticalization, and the book under review is a welcome addition to the steadily In their book, Hopper & Traugott define grammaticalization as ‘the pro-. Traugott ; Hopper & Traugott []), is a basic type of change that may lead to Claims about “constructions” and grammaticalization in earlier work. Grammaticalization: Paul J. Hopper, Elizabeth Closs Traugott, Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics, Cambridge University Press, second ed., [], xx +.

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In addition, unidirectionality refers to a general developmental orientation which all or the large majority of the cases of grammaticalization have in common, and which can be paraphrased in abstract, general terms, independent of any specific case. Grammar slowly developed through four different stages, each in which the grammatical structure would be more developed.

New articles gramnaticalization to this author’s research.

HopperElizabeth Closs Traugott Limited preview – Account Options Sign in. HopperElizabeth Closs Traugott. Lehmann also invented a set of ‘parameters’, a method along which grammaticality could be measured both synchronically and diachronically. However, phonetic erosion, a common process of language change that can take place grammaticaization no connection to grammaticalization, is not a necessary property of grammaticalization. For an understanding of this process, a distinction needs to be made between lexical itemsor content words, which carry specific lexical meaning, and grammatical items, or function hoppfr, with little or no lexical hopepr, which serve to express grammatical relationships between the different traigott in an utterance.

More specifically, with reference to grammaticalization, bleaching refers to the loss of all or most lexical content of an entity while only its grammatical content is retained, [8] for example James Matisoff described bleaching as “the partial effacement of a morpheme’s semantic features, the stripping away of some of its precise content so it can be used in an abstracter, grammatical-hardware-like way”.


Meillet’s definition was “the attribution of grammatical character to an erstwhile autonomous word”. It also features in many collocations, such grammaticalizahion sure dosure can and sure is.

Joan Bybee and her colleagues present a new theory of the evolution of grammar that links structure and meaning in a way that directly challenges most contemporary versions of generative grammar.

Chapter one, Hopper and Traugott

It implies that a linguistic expression loses phonetic substance when it has undergone grammaticalization. This was the first work to emphasize the continuity of research from the earliest period to the present, and it provided a survey of the major work in the field. For example, the demonstrative ‘that’ as in “that book” came to be used as a relative clause marker, and lost the grammatical category of number ‘that’ singular vs.

Cambridge University Press, New citations to this author. These are semantic bleachingphonetic erosionmorphological reduction and obligatorification. In the process of grammaticalization, an uninflected lexical word or content word is transformed into a grammar word or function word. Other editions – View all Grammaticalization Paul J. In comparison to various instances of grammaticalization, there are relatively few counterexamples to the unidirectionality hypothesis, and they often seem to require special circumstances to occur.

Applied cognitive linguistics I: An introductory essay for the volume PJ Hopper Tense-aspect: Since it is the entire phrase to up the ante that is the verb, Hopper and Traugott argue that the word up itself cannot be said to have degrammaticalized, a view that is challenged to some extent by parallel usages such as to up the bidto up the paymentto up the deductionsto up the medicationby the fact that in all cases the can be replaced by a possessive my, your, her, Bill’s, etc.


Aspect between discourse and grammar: I have to sing. Once a linguistic expression has changed from a lexical to a grammatical meaning bleachingit is likely to lose morphological and syntactic elements that were characteristic of its initial category, but which are not relevant to the grammatical function.

In order to successfully communicate these ideas, grammatical structures slowly came into existence. Humboldtputting Sino-Tibetan languages in a sharp contrast to the other languages in the world in typology. Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure 45, 27 Retrieved from ” https: Some observations on the typology of focus and aspect in narrative language PJ Hopper Studies in Language.

Hopper P., Traugott E.C. Grammaticalization

Finally it became true future tense in almost all Romance languages and the auxiliary became a full-fledged inflection cf. Some recent trends in grammaticalization PJ Hopper Annual review of anthropology 25 1ohpper, Hopper is Thomas S. Email address for updates. Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing boundinflectional constructions, instead deriving them from content words.

Syntax and Semantics Ann Arbor, Mich.